begins when she learns she was born of the incestuous union of Oedipus, the
former king of Thebes, and his own mother, Jocasta. After the blindness of her
father-brother, Antigone follows him into exile, before returning to Thebes
after his death to try to reconcile her brothers' quarrelling over the throne.
Instead the two warring brothers are both killed and Creon, Antigone�s uncle,
becomes king. Creon honors the brother who defends Thebes but forbids the
removal of the corpse of the second, condemning it to rot as a traitor.
Antigone, moved by
love for her brother and convinced of the injustice of the command, which she
believes violates divine law, buries his body secretly. For this Creon orders
she be buried alive in a cave.
This complex and
bewildering story is the polarization of one of the basic elements of the
relationship between man and society -- the individual�s challenge to Power . .
. and Power�s reaction to the challenge. Since then, Antigone�s act of burying
her brother has been repeated down through the centuries as women have risked
all to bury their dead men-warriors.
King Creon: �Shall
the mob dictate my policy. . . . Am I to rule for others, or myself?�
Haemon, King Creon�s
son, pleading for the life of his fianc�e and Creon�s niece, Antigone, who has
violated the king�s law: �A State for one man is no State at all.�
Creon, who has
usurped power illegally: �The State is his who rules it, so �tis held.�
Haemon: �As monarch
of a desert thou wouldst shine.� Then later, sending his father to the devil,
Haemon adds: �Go, consort with friends who like a madman for their mate.�
When Creon, despite
his son�s pleas, accusations and threats to join Antigone in death if the
king-dictator maintains his edict, the Chorus charges both king and submissive
are thy subjects all, and even the wisest heart
Straight to folly will fall, at a touch of thy poisoned dart.�
�Yet,� the Chorus adds: �it is ill to disobey
The powers who hold by might the sway.
Thou hast withstood authority,
A self-willed rebel, thou must die.�
between Antigone and Creon reflects the dialectics of Western society since the
time of the ancient Greeks in all its political, social, moral and legal
ramifications. The reading I have given here to the tragedy is socio-political
-- the individual vs. Power.
The heart of the
tragedy lies in Antigone�s free admission that she committed the act -- she
buried her brother�s body in disobedience of King Creon�s edict that the body
was to remain untouched. Since her father-brother Oedipus was unaware of his
crime of the murder of his father and of incest with his mother, his crime was
excusable. Antigone�s crime on the other hand was a conscious act and therefore
Since Antigone knew and admitted her her guilt as Creon
insisted she do, her defiance of Power appears not only as a demand for
justice, an expression of the greatest love, a passion for an ideal and
conformity to an ethical norm superior to the public one, but also as the
head-on collision between individual rights and the requisites of the state.
Hers is more than a death drive, at the edge, the limit that humans can hardly
cross. It is much more than an act of feminine heroism.
Her act is a symbol
of the ideal, the emergence of the higher, individual law vis-a-vis Power, the
qualities of good and evil which both the modern political Left and Right would
historically claim. This tragedy of 2,500 years ago turns on the politics of
the private spirit and the violence which political social change exacts on the
individual. This is truly the dividing line of the abyss separating individual
man and society.
A terrible beauty on
one hand, a terrible ugliness on the other. The clash of private conscience and
public welfare! Yet, in modern times, both private conscience and most
certainly the concept of public welfare have weakened.
Antigone -- first
demanding justice, then claiming also that her dead rebel brother stood outside
the law -- stands on the lip of that abyss before she disappears from the
action of the tragedy into a death so not understood that the Chorus called her
Antigone admits that
she broke the law. But ethical man forgives her in the name of an unwritten law
that exists above and beyond the public law that idealists in all times would
make part of written law. She is criminal. But only to the extent that her act
enters into an ambiguous territory of the very concept of law.
Here we are speaking
of the law of the state as opposed to ethical law, �The immutable unwritten
laws of heaven,� that however may never be written. In later
days and down to our times not even the holy scriptures condemn war
unconditionally, which however every thinking man knows is criminal. Antigone
is symbolic of an unwritten law, perhaps nonetheless divine, eternal,
universal. She exists somewhere in a shadowy realm that contemporary men strain
unwritten ethical law appears as the most elevated part of man, a law that is
near the divine, her defiance borders on what some theorists today would define
as terrorism, because of her fanatical longing for death in defense of that
Yet, her choice is
also not distant from the concept of the divine rights of man that lie in that
same shadowy territory. In that sense her choice is transcendental for each of
us, because it is linked to the good.
Instead, Creon at
first justifies his severity in application of the law -- though it is his own
arbitrary law -- in the name of the good of all, as per Dostoevsky�s Grand
Inquisitor. His will becomes law.
And he would compel the ethical individual to obey his arbitrary law. In his
application of the law, he exceeds ethical law, basing his authority on his own
desire, as in President Bush�s justification for going to war in Iraq: �I want
to do this thing!�
The unfolding, the
denouement and conclusion of Sophocles� Antigone not only do not lead to
a resolution but to irresolution. In fact, the action intensifies Antigone�s
defiance, causing a cycle of death, things go insane with the suicides of her
fianc� Haemon and his mother and Creon�s wife.
In that sense, the
entire cast of Antigone, Haemon, and Creon himself, stand on the edge, at the
limit of life, somewhere between life and death. No wonder ambiguity reigns
supreme. Antigone evokes laws of heaven and earth, yet exists within the
presumption of criminal guilt -- which in one view is only grieving for her
dead brother -- and in a sense not even clearly in opposition to Creon�s edict
in the name of the good for all. Strangely, they both claim the gods are on
their sides. It is unclear if she a Christ figure, as some philosophers have
concluded, a God�s child, emerging from the tomb to live through the millennia
until our day.
And Creon himself,
was he evil? That too is a real and eternal question: Was his edict another
kind of social heroism? Or was his act purely arbitrary, a case of, �I want to
do this thing�?
In the end -- and as
a boon to the conscience of those persons dedicated to the role of the just
social state -- Creon, the man of state, does come to regrets. Though here I am
tempted to argue with myself, I recognize that Creon understands and
appreciates Antigone�s stance and that he also knows that she too appreciates
his position. Here we stand before the familiar old duality of life: between
what we think we desire to do and what we actually do. Between enlightenment
and madness. Illusion and delusion.
Sophocles, the Chorus, that is, the public and society, discerning or not,
vacillates in its support, first for the man of state and Power, then for the
higher right. For the Chorus, Antigone is less than human. She is one who no
longer counts, somewhere out of the world, a substratum, to be compared to the
unconsidered masses, non-represented, non-participating, non-voting majority of
America who take no role in the exercise of Power.
At the end of
Sophocles� tragedy, one wonders which gods and what kind of gods they are all
appealing to if they all believe they are acting within the mandate of the
gods. However that may be, in my reading, Creon is the representative of
arbitrary Power which the oppressed, for whatever their reasons, have the
divine right to doubt, question and bring down.
that man act polemically, precisely in order to realize himself and a just
society. In order to reject the fatalism that leads us to accept that what will
come to pass will come to pass. People die but others must go on.
Life will go on.
One must live. One
must participate in order to be part of continuing life. When the laws of the
land are in conflict with justice, when Mother State is no longer the just
mother, then acts which Power labels criminal and which, in fact, can become
violent and revolutionary become not only just, but necessary.
In my reading,
Antigone is representative of the conflictual revolutionary ideal.
One recalls the
proverb, �if you strike at the king, you must kill the king.�
Island, February 2007. Re-worked
in Buenos Aires, September 2007
Stewart is originally from Asheville, NC. After studies at the University of
California at Berkeley and other American universities, he has lived his adult
life abroad, in Germany and Italy, alternated with residences in The
Netherlands, France, Mexico, Argentina and Russia. After a career in journalism
as Italian correspondent for the Rotterdam newspaper, Algemeen Dagblad, and contributor
to media in various European countries, he writes fiction full-time. His books,
"Icy Current Compulsive Course, To Be A Stranger" and "Once In
Berlin" are published by Wind River Press. His new novel,
"Asheville," is published by www.Wastelandrunes.com
He lives with his wife, Milena, in Rome, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com