ROME -- In an essay especially pertinent to
contemporary American society, L�Exil d�H�lene, Albert Camus noted,
�Greek thought always restrained itself behind the idea of limits. It never
exceeded limits, neither the sacred, nor reason, because it denied nothing,
neither the sacred, nor reason. It made allowance for everything, balancing
shadow and light. Instead, our Europe, launched toward the conquest of
totality, is the very daughter of excess [ed.: writing in the immediate
aftermath of World War II, I�m certain Camus would note here not only Europe
but especially the America of our times.]. . . . In its folly it extends the
eternal limits, and immediately obscure Erinys fall on it and tear it apart.�
Reading Camus� essay in the midst of the
bedlam of the ongoing collapse of Capitalism falling to pieces around us helped
me pinpoint the idea for this concluding essay of the Definitions
series: Definitions: The Proletariat; Definitions: The Intelligentsia;
Definitions: The Bourgeoisie. Mammon is the God of Excess and the very
personification of the capitalist god (or rather its demon), even though now a
The natural subject for this essay is
Capitalism itself, in fact, the underlying subject of the whole essay quartet.
However, since Capitalism is too vast to treat here, the god-devil image of
Mammon is more accessible. For the very basis of Western society is the
personification of a Weltanschauung, a view of life, which is the illusion of
the possibility of a life without limits. Many readers have recognized the
hubris of our economic-financial world this 2008 as the direct result of our
attempt to exceed universal limits. For the worship of Mammon, the Golden Calf,
the love of wealth, marks our times.
In the Bible, �Mammon� is not a demon but
simply the Aramaic word meaning �wealth� or �property.� Sometimes it is
translated as �money.� In the Middle Ages, in religious writings, in the fiery
sermons of the fanatical Dominican monk in Florence, Girolamo Savonarola, and
in literature, Mammon is personified as the demon of avarice and wealth.
For modern men as for medieval men Mammon
is the personification of the excessive love of money and wealth. By extension
then Mammon is the god of excess. Mammon demands that its worshippers strive
toward excess, that they exceed the eternal limits of the Greeks. America has
obeyed the abominable god�s commandments.
Excess! Surplus. Extravagance.
Intemperance. Exceptionalism. Outrageous expectations. Exaggerated
presumptions. Too much. Too big. Too fast. Too much of everything. Too, too,
too. . . .
Laws of ancient Babylonia formalized the
use of money as a medium of exchange to replace barter. Money has always been
an abstraction, a token, in lieu of real objects of real value. As precious
metals became the symbol of money-wealth so did the worship of gold, the Golden
Calf of the Babylonians. The worship of the rare soft metal, gold, whose
qualities (not real value) were easily recognized, swept the civilized world.
In the long run, whatever the medium --
gold and silver, coins, warehouse deposit receipts for real goods, paper
currency and finally so-called fiat money (that is, money not
backed by reserves of another commodity) inexorably lead to the power of
emergent banks and financial institutions which lend money in excess of the
reserves held for their depositors. That is, without guarantees of the bank�s
ability to pay its debts. That is, the economic mayhem of today.
In the resulting atmosphere man�s natural
inclinations toward avarice and greed for more and more money and the
commodities money can buy has flourished -- flaunted and displayed at all costs
-- and has exceeded all limits. For ages learned men have warned that money is
the root of all evil. Our society in fact values property over life. We buy far
more than we need or could ever use. We measure success in dollars and cents.
We are driven by greed and selfishness. We worship money. We worship a token, a
symbol, the Golden Calf. As obviously dysfunctional, unjust, and destructive as
our system is, many of us who oppose the billion-dollar bailouts of financial
markets still nod in agreement when capitalist economists insist that while the
�bailout� is excessive, �something has to be done to restore investor
confidence and get credit flowing again.�
We all want to live without economic
worries. We all want to permit ourselves something extra. The truth is we enjoy
luxury. Money is a necessity. The problem is the worship, the adoration of
Mammon far beyond the limits. For God�s sake, life lived just for money
reduces our existence to null.
Yet, despite all, especially in the wreck
of the capitalist world, money remains an abstraction, an invention of the
human mind, the symbol of value, today enthroned on high in the world. We all
know that money is the God of war and peace, the power of powers, the one power
superior to all other powers. Thus it is the symbol of excess. The surpassing
of natural limits. Man�s invention, an enthroned abstraction, controls and
manipulates our lives.
Everyone knows we live in an unequal world.
Half of the world�s population has nothing, a great majority struggles to make
ends meet, while wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few. Strangely, few
people realize how excessive the inequality has become under the reign of
today�s super-Mammon. See these published statistics: The world now counts 358
billionaires, whose net worth equals the combined net worth of the world�s 2.5
billion poorest people. The capitalization of some banks exceeds the total
national production of 100 countries. This inequitable result is not
unavoidable. The gap is not a natural human process.
This dramatic inequality is the will of and
obedience to Mammon, the God of Excess. Mammon�s religion created neoliberalism
and the globalized free market economy and its excessive economic and social
distortions so idealized by the god-demon�s worshippers. That system is now on
trial. We have ready evidence that globalized free trade does not advance
economic and social justice. On the contrary, in a short time it has carried
mankind to the precipice of universal ruin.
That excess, that concept of a world
without limits, the belief that growth can continue forever, has spawned
economic injustice. That excess is responsible for its merger into an unholy
alliance with socio-political oppression on a transnational scale.
Mammon up there on his throne must be
roaring in laughter and rubbing his demonic hands in self-satisfaction.
Mammon-Beelzebub has victory within his grasp.
Does this idol worship really make sense?
Everyone should be wondering about that. While the top 200 gigantic industrial
corporations control 25 percent of the world�s production, they employ only
0.35 percent of the world�s population. Something stinks here! Moreover, not
counting the rotten financial institutions, the top 300 transnational companies
own 25 percent of the world�s production assets. And now this: the combined
assets of the world�s 50 largest commercial banks and diversified financial
companies (only 50!) amount to 60 percent of an estimated $20 trillion global
productive capital. That�s capitalism at its most excessive extension, far, far
beyond the limits.
What do such statistics mean? The truth is
such excesses are too much for the human mind to register and comprehend.
Therefore, we ignore them. Yet those figures register what happens in the real
economy. They tell us that deregulation has been the final systemic flaw.
Clearly rampant savage capitalism has not
only killed America but has carried our entire world beyond the limits. As
others have warned repeatedly, economic growth cannot be eternal. Nor is it
even desirable. There is a limit. There is a limit to everything. Growth cannot
exceed those limits.
As the Christian Bible states, jumbled,
abstruse, over-simplified, it is on target in the great divide between Mammon
on one hand, and Man on the other: �No one can serve two masters. He will
either hate one and love the other, or be devoted to one and despise the other.
You cannot serve God and mammon.� (The Gospel according to St. Matthew 6:24)
In Dante�s Divine Comedy, Mammon
appears as a wolf-like demon of wealth, wolves being associated with greed in
the Middle Ages. Thomas Aquinas described metaphorically the sin of avarice as
�Mammon carried up from hell by a wolf, coming to inflame the human heart with
�Woe to the rich,� Savonarola preached in
rich Florence until they hanged and burned him. �Rethink you well, O ye rich,
for affliction shall smite you.�
In Paradise Lost Milton wrote of a
fallen angel who values earthly treasure over all other things:
Mammon led them
Mammon, the least erected Spirit that fell
From Heaven; for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts
Were always downward bent, admiring more
The riches of heaven�s pavement, trodden gold,
Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed
In vision beatific. By him first
Men also, and by his suggestion taught,
Ransacked the centre, and with impious hands
Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth
For treasures better hid. Soon had his crew
Opened into the hill a spacious wound,
And digged out ribs of gold . . .
Paradise Lost, Book i, 678-690
In the comic book Spawn about which
I read online, Mammon is depicted as a handsome gentleman, suave and
sophisticated at the head of an army of demons. This demon is often seen making
attractive deals with humans for their souls and is thought to be quite
on the same miserable ship
The news that the US Congress voted down
the first bailout bill labeling it �Socialism� struck Europe as an unimaginable
surprise. The impotence of the US president seemed like another stone on the
tomb of America�s rock faith in the market. Some European observers interpreted
the anti-bailout opposition as an atmosphere of everyman for himself: deputies
worried only about their re-election if they save Wall Street sharks.
Europe was surprised at the mediocre
provincialism, the egoism of the American political world face to face with the
gravest of financial disasters. Cynical Europeans saw through the Republican
reluctance to vote for the bailout plan. Though its right-wing supporters
wanted nothing to do with �Socialism,� they let the Democratic opposition vote
in the bill so they could get the benefits of the bailout but not have to pay
the political price.
No wonder Europeans wonder about American
democracy. Is its responsibility as the world leader not too serious a matter
to be left in the hands of an America morally and politically destroyed by
eight years of lies about everything, from the wars to torture to the �solid�
economy? Europeans note that they, like Americans, must now pay for a failed
and bankrupt US presidency.
Such is the price of excess. Of exceeding
The crisis has provoked a historic
turn-around -- the wave of re-nationalizations unseen in America since the
Great Depression. It�s the return of the state-proprietor. Not because of an
ideological change of heart but out of necessity. Some reactions to the
emergency have been similar in America and Europe. But not all. Those
differences between the two are great. And often not in capitalist Europe�s
favor. European banks are slower and even more reticent than American banks to
reveal the black holes in their balance sheets caused by trash instruments of
The dimension of the crisis in Europe was
masked. Europe has not been simply grazed by America�s crisis. European
workers-savers are just as exposed as Americans, a fact covered up by bankers
in London�s City and Paris� La D�fense and in Frankfurt�s skyscrapers. Now
Europe is in the hurricane. And wage earners must pay for it. As usual. What
happened in the USA should not hide the gravity of the parallel drama in Europe
-- stock markets crashing and banks failing, merging or nationalizing, such as
the giant Belgian Fortis Bank, worth triple the GDP of Belgium, saved by the
injection of capital from Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg. The same kind of
life jacket was thrown out to the German Hypo Real Estate. Even rich Iceland
had to nationalize a bankrupt bank and borrow money from Russia to survive.
Growth at all costs! Beyond the limits!
The Deutsche Bank is worth 80 percent of
Germany�s GDP; Barclay�s is equal to 100 percent of England�s. Excess and size
are the reasons Europe is no less exposed and vulnerable than the US. The US
crisis forced European financial authorities to recognize that some financial
giants are �too big to be allowed to fail.� Europe faces something even worse:
�institutions too big to be saved!� Excessive in respect to the sizes and
capacities of the old nation-states. The results of the multinational European
Union at work.
Italian journalist Federico Rampini noted
the inadequacy of Europe�s political and institutional means to confront the
storm. The American bailout has a price tag of one trillion, i.e. 7 percent of
the US GDP. A murderous price for US public finances but not impossible. To
equal that price the European Union had to ignore its stability pact and
surrender principles of financial rigor. Compromises are necessary to confront
the tremors of the capitalist economy. EU banks are of global dimensions but
there is no single responsible authority. The European Central Bank does not
have the Fed�s institutional powers, there is no European Treasury, and such
vigilance as exists is divided among national states.
Europe however has one major advantage over
America: Nationalization, i.e. Socialism, is not overly alarming to Europe. The
social state still has its admirers and is an acceptable and salonf�hig crutch.
In Greek tragedy. the gods drive mad those
they want to ruin. One recognizes elements of Greek tragedy in the negotiations
between the two American �super heroes,� Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson with
his martial air and the chairman of the American Federal Reserve System,
professorial Ben Bernanke, and the American Congress: the conflict, the
rhetorical confrontation between Paulson-Bernanke and hesitant and furious
senators, the supplication of super-Paulson kneeling before House Speaker Nancy
Pelosi, imploring her to allocate 700 billion dollars to re-float the financial
Titanic, and the indispensable recitative of the messenger -- Bush, McCain or
Obama -- before the cameras to recount their versions of this anthological
As such, the unlikely actors are begging
for a bit less market and a bit more state.
The crunch has carried us back in time. We
have seen images of multitudes of hungry people on the streets of the Western
world after the Great Depression of the 1930s. We ask why the crisis? Why low salaries
of wage earners and half-billion dollar bonuses for executives? Why?
It�s the money.
It�s the excess.
It�s the ignorance of limits.
Taxpayer money is always available to save
banks. To save the globalized markets for the paper economy. Blackmail of the
poor taxpayers is always a bailout. The irony is that the same people who
caused the meltdown are those called to resolve it. Are they saving it or
profiting from it? We believe they are benefiting. For money, anything goes
today as in super wealthy medieval Florence. Or, as some cynical Europeans
wonder, are the presses of the Mint simply printing new money?
Does that mean that a new epoch is
non-capitalist era? Are we already in the new era? One
wonders. Even retrograde Pope Benedict XVI recently stated, �Money is nothing.�
Super secret Opus Dei calls for a reform of our lifestyle.
For the Catholic Church this is an ethical
question. Though inequalities are related to ethics, I believe the growth of
inequalities is a social question. The confirmation of the failures of
Epilogue: After decades of living 10 kilometers
from the Vatican with its popes and saints, superstitions and exorcisms and
visions and epiphanies, in a world in which faith is the whole point, I still
find it strange that the atmosphere in which we live is strange. Yet, strange
things do happen in our lives. Like the following miraculous scene I have
described so often that today I do not know if it really happened, if I dreamed
it, or if I made it up.
I was once driving through Decatur, a
suburb of Atlanta, Georgia, on my way to interview the French-Russian writer
Vladimir Volkov who was teaching at Agnes Scott College. I stopped at a caf�
(at this point, I suspect, real reality ends) and I was sitting in a booth over
coffee looking blankly out the window into early spring sunrays when Saint Paul
walked in. I recognized him. He sat down with me. He talked about his blindness
in the Okefenoke swamps and something about King David before saying apropos of
nothing that the good life of Americans had convinced them that all is well
between them and God. I sat up straight, immediately receptive. Such thoughts
were already running through my head. They believe they�re the chosen people
because their material life is so good, Saint Paul said, because they are
blessed while others starve. In the meantime, he said, God is offering his
blessings to others, so that Americans will wake up. A nation that has received
God�s grace can�t just go on sinning as it likes. It has special rules. It
can�t behave as it does, he insisted. Americans are deluded thinking they�re a
special people. They preach to others while they don�t know what they�re doing
themselves. They say stealing is bad and then sack entire continents, including
their own. They say killing is wrong and they annihilate entire peoples and
imprison their own. They say war is wrong and they have made war for a century.
They�re proud because they know God�s law, yet much of the world hates them.
America is rich at the expense of others.
The holy man dressed in white hesitated,
looked at me closely as if to determine if I was receptive and then said that
God would bless those who came to him. But God can change His mind, he said. He
can bless or cut off as He pleases. He can bless America today and someone else
tomorrow. Saint Paul then mentioned an old prophecy of Hosea that God would
desert the chosen people and love other people who no one has loved before. No
one is good, he said, no one in the world is innocent.
in Rome, Gaither Stewart is Cyrano�s Journal Online�s
European correspondent. A seasoned journalist and critic, his essays and
reports have been published by scores of leading sites and print media around